2016 年 7 月 28 日，交通部发布《关于深化改革推进出租汽车行业健康发展的指导意见》和《网络预约出租汽车经营服务管理暂行办法》两份文件，将酝酿两年之久的出租车改革及网约车新政方案揭开面纱之后，乐观情绪一度在行业中弥漫。 It is undeniable that on July 28 , 2016, the Ministry of Transport issued two documents, "Guiding Opinions on Deepening the Reform and Promoting the Healthy Development of the Taxi Industry" and "Interim Measures for the Management of Online Appointed Taxi Management Services", which will be brewing for two years After the taxi reform and the New Deal plan for the Internet-linked car were unveiled, optimism once permeated the industry.
”当时，某网约车公司内部人士在公司正式回应发布前，如此向新浪科技说道。 "This is a major benefit ! " At that time, insiders of a car-hailing company said to Sina Technology before the company officially responded to the release. After all, for the first time, the legal status of ride-hailing has been clarified at the national level, and China has become the first country in the world to legalize ride-hailing.
1 万元的处罚。 Prior to this, online car hire was a black car in the official definition. Beijing, Shanghai and other places also carried out special actions to rectify online car hire. Drivers were arrested to bear a penalty of 10,000 yuan.
But after the two documents were announced, the ride-hailing company experienced a roller coaster-like experience.
“各地可根据本办法结合本地实际制定具体实施细则”。 The reason came from the end of the document, "Local governments can formulate specific implementation rules based on this method in combination with local actual conditions." In fact, it is precisely because of this clause that the trend of China for ride-hailing has changed again.
“京人京籍”、“沪人沪籍”的要求，并且在车辆的排量、轴距等方面加以限制。 After the Ministry of Transport, Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Shenzhen and other cities have also announced the details of the new rules for local network ride-hailing. Compared with the new policies of the Ministry of Transportation, the local new rules have more detailed and strict regulations on the Internet-based ride platform, vehicles and drivers. Shanghai has clearly put forward the requirements of "Beijing people's Beijing nationality" and "Shanghai people's Shanghai nationality", and it has imposed restrictions on vehicle displacement and wheelbase. The details of the New Deal rules vary slightly from place to place, but most of them follow this line of thinking.
Under the new policies in various places, the online ride-hailing platform was tired of applying for local licenses, and the number of vehicles and drivers that met the requirements on the platform was greatly reduced. End-user complaints about the difficulty and expensiveness of taxis came again.
From black car to legal
App 匹配乘客与出租车，解决了出租车时代打车难的问题，而通过一定程度的补贴，也降低了乘客的出行成本。 At the beginning of its establishment, Didi's business model was to match passengers with taxis through the App , which solved the problem of difficult taxis in the era of taxis. Through a certain degree of subsidies, it also reduced passenger travel costs.
8 月，用户数超过 1 亿、司机数超过 100 万的滴滴开始扩张产品线，推出了专车业务。 In August 2014, Didi , which has more than 100 million users and more than 1 million drivers , began expanding its product line and launched a special car business. Compared with taxis, the special-purpose vehicles are more high-end and the driver's services are more perfect, which undoubtedly grabs the taxi business to a certain extent. 年 5 月，滴滴进一步推出了价格更加低廉的快车业务，网约车企业与出租车之间的利益冲突越来越明显，专车与快车的合法性问题也引发争议。 In May 2015, Didi further launched the express bus service at a lower price. The conflict of interest between online car rental companies and taxis has become increasingly apparent, and the legality of special cars and express trains has also caused controversy.
12 月，上海市交通委副主任杨小溪在“非法客运整治情况”专题情况会议上表示，滴滴专车属于黑车，营运不合法。 In December 2014, Yang Xiaoxi, deputy director of the Shanghai Municipal Transportation Commission, stated at the special situation meeting on "Illegal Passenger Rectification" that Didi's special car is a black car and its operation is illegal. 12 月 25 日，上海市交通委查扣了 12 辆滴滴专车，其中 5 辆车的驾驶员被行政罚款各 1 万元。 As of December 25 of that year , the Shanghai Municipal Transportation Commission had seized 12 Didi special cars, of which 5 drivers were fined 10,000 yuan each . 10 万元罚单。 Subsequently, the Shanghai Traffic Law Enforcement Corps determined that Didi's private car was included in its commercial operation platform, and there was an illegal business behavior, and a fine of 100,000 yuan was issued.
1 月，北京市交通执法总队新闻发言人梁建伟表示，执法人员查到的所有使用滴滴打车、易到以及快的打车软件上提供的专车服务，全部属于“黑车”运营。 In January 2015, Liang Jianwei, a spokesman for the Beijing Traffic Law Enforcement Corps, stated that all special car services provided by law enforcement personnel using Didi Taxi, Easy to Go and Quick Taxi software are all "black car" operations. 2014 年 5 月至今，查处的易到用车、滴滴打车以及一号专车等 47 辆“专车”，并定性为非法运营。 Liang Jianwei revealed that from May 2014 to the present, 47 "special vehicles" such as easy-to-use vehicles, Didi taxis, and No. 1 special vehicles have been investigated and punished , and they have been identified as illegal operations.
2015 年 6 月，北京市交通委运输管理局、市交通执法总队和市公安局公交保卫总队共同约谈“滴滴专车”平台负责人，明确指出该公司推出的“滴滴专车”及“滴滴快车”业务，使用私家车和租赁车配备驾驶员，从事按照乘客意愿提供运输服务并按里程和时间收费的客运服务，违反了现行法律法规的规定。 By June 2015, the Transportation Management Bureau of Beijing Municipal Committee of Transportation, the Municipal Traffic Law Enforcement Corps and the Public Security Bureau of the Municipal Public Security Bureau had jointly interviewed the person in charge of the “Didi Special Vehicle” platform, clearly pointing out that the company ’s “Didi Special Vehicle” and “ Didi Express "business, using private cars and rental cars to equip drivers, engaging in passenger services that provide transportation services according to the wishes of passengers and charging for mileage and time, violates the provisions of current laws and regulations. 2015 年以来市交通执法总队查处非法运营车辆 963 起，涉及滴滴专车平台从事非法运营车辆 207 起，其中私家车 161 起。 The meeting also informed that since 2015 , the Municipal Traffic Law Enforcement Corps has investigated and dealt with 963 illegally operating vehicles , including 207 illegally operating vehicles involving the Didi special vehicle platform , including 161 private cars .
2015 年 10 月 8 日，上海市交通委员会向滴滴快的发放专车平台经营资格证，一度让长期处于灰色地带的互联网专车有了合法化的希望。 However, some cities are tolerant of special cars. On October 8 , 2015, the Shanghai Municipal Transportation Commission issued Didi Kuaidi's license to operate the special car platform, which once gave hope for the legalization of the special Internet cars that have been in a gray area for a long time. According to the regulations of the Shanghai Transportation Commission, in addition to the relevant qualifications and service capabilities of the location, the platform party must also obtain Internet business qualifications and telecommunications business licenses, the platform database access to the supervision platform, and the registration server set up in mainland China. . Vehicles need to pass the platform review to obtain a road transport permit. Drivers need to pass the platform review to obtain a qualification certificate. In the industry's view, Shanghai's entry barriers are relatively loose, which is conducive to the development of special-purpose vehicle platforms.
2015 年 10 月 10 日公布的《网络预约出租汽车经营服务管理暂行办法 ( 征求意见稿 ) 》让网约车企业再次陷入困境。 The “Interim Measures for the Management of Online Appointed Taxi Operating Services ( Consultation Draft ) ” announced by the Ministry of Communications on October 10 , 2015 put online car rental companies in trouble again.
2013 年开始实施的《机动车强制报废标准规定》，小、微型出租客运汽车使用年限为 8 年，超过使用年限要强制报废。 According to the draft of the comments, the nature of the use of Internet-linked vehicles should be registered as a rental passenger. According to the "Compulsory Discard Standard for Motor Vehicles" , which was implemented in 2013 , the service life of small and micro rental passenger cars is 8 years, exceeding the service life. To force scrap. This undoubtedly greatly reduces the willingness of private car owners to engage in online booking. The stipulation that the driver of the online car rental company should sign a labor contract or operating contract with the platform party is also considered to greatly increase the burden of the online car rental company.
12 位专家联合发出倡议，称《征求意见稿》存在重大缺陷，不应出台。 Soon after the consultation draft of the Ministry of Communications was announced, 12 experts including Fu Weigang, chief strategy officer of Wujie Think Tank, He Xia, deputy chief engineer of the Institute of Policy and Economics of the Telecommunications Research Institute of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, and Jin Yongjun, associate professor at the School of Economics and Management of Tsinghua University jointly issued an initiative, saying the "draft for comments " There are major flaws and should not be introduced. Experts point out that there is a fundamental deviation in the regulatory thinking of the "Draft for Comments", there are a large number of illegal setting powers, and the lack of effective regulatory measures for online car bookings. The bill should be re-drafted in accordance with the latest instructions of the Party Central Committee and the State Council.
Didi also issued a statement saying that the Ministry of Communications recommends room for development of part-time drivers and vehicles. “如果要求网约专车车辆变更为营运性质、兼职司机需考出租车从业资格证，可能使大部分兼职司机和车辆退出，让百姓重新面临打车难的问题。” He also stated that "if the special-purpose vehicle on the Internet is required to be changed to an operational nature, and part-time drivers need to take a taxi qualification certificate, it may cause most part-time drivers and vehicles to withdraw, and make people face difficulties again."
7 月 28 日，交通部正式公布了《网络预约出租汽车经营服务管理暂行办法》，其中要求网约车车辆登记为预约出租客运，网约车行驶里程达到 60 万千米时强制报废，行驶里程未达到 60 万千米但使用年限达到 8 年时，退出网约车经营，不再要求 8 年强制报废。 On July 28 , 2016, the Ministry of Transport officially promulgated the "Interim Measures for the Management of Online Appointed Taxi Business Service Management", which requires that online taxis be registered as reserved taxis. When the mileage of online taxis reaches 600,000 kilometers, they will be forcibly scrapped and driven. When the mileage does not reach 600,000 kilometers, but the service life reaches 8 years, it will withdraw from the online car service and no longer require mandatory scrap for 8 years. At the same time, the "Interim Measures" will change the requirement in the comment draft that "the driver of an online car should sign a labor contract or business contract with the platform party" to "sign various types of labor contracts or agreements with the driver."
After the announcement of the new policy of the Ministry of Transport's online car-hailing, the legal status of online car-hailing has been clarified for the first time at the national level, and China has also become the first country in the world to legalize online car-hailing. Didi, Divine China, Uber, and Yida have successively expressed their support for the policy.
Embarrassment after legalization
“各地可根据本办法结合本地实际制定具体实施细则”让网约车在中国的走向再次发生了变化。 At the end of the New Deal document of the Ministry of Communications, “every locality can formulate specific implementation rules in accordance with this measure in combination with local actualities” has changed the direction of Internet-linked cars in China.
“京人京车”、“沪人沪车”的要求，并且在车辆的排量、轴距等方面加以限制。 After the Ministry of Transport, Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Shenzhen and other cities have also announced the details of the new rules for local network ride-hailing. Compared with the new policies of the Ministry of Transportation, the local new rules have more detailed and strict regulations on the Internet-based ride platform, vehicles, and drivers. Beijing Shanghai clearly put forward the requirements of "Beijing Jingjing" and "Shanghai Renhu", and also imposed restrictions on vehicle displacement and wheelbase.
5 座三厢小客车车辆轴距不小于 2650 毫米 ( 含新能源车 ) ，排气量不小于 1.8 升 ;7 座乘用车排气量不小于 2.0 升、轴距不小于 3000 毫米。 Taking Beijing as an example, the detailed rules require that the wheelbase of a five- seater sedan is not less than 2650 mm ( including new energy vehicles ) and the exhaust volume is not less than 1.8 liters ; the exhaust capacity of a seven- seater passenger car is not less than 2.0 liters and the wheelbase Not less than 3000 mm. 2600 毫米以上。 The Shanghai rules require vehicle wheelbases to be above 2600 mm.
And Qingdao's online car rules set more stringent standards for vehicles. The price of the vehicle is not less than the purchase price of concierge taxis for the same period, and the body size, wheelbase, luggage compartment volume, engine power, engine torque, fuel consumption, and new Specific regulations have been made for the mileage of energy vehicles.
Under the strict limit, there is a cliff-like reduction in the number of drivers and vehicles. ; 在上海已激活的 41 万余名司机中，仅有不到 1 万名司机具有上海本地户籍。 When publishing a comment draft of online car rental rules in Shanghai, Didi said that according to platform statistics, less than one-fifth of the online car rides that meet the new wheelbase requirements ; of the more than 410,000 drivers that have been activated in Shanghai , only Up to 10,000 drivers have Shanghai local hukou. 110 万，活跃司机数量逾 20 万，但只有 10.7% 的司机符合京籍规定。 When Beijing issued the official detailed rules for online car bookings, the media reported that Didi had 1.1 million registered drivers in Beijing and more than 200,000 active drivers , but only 10.7% of the drivers met the Beijing citizenship regulations.
3 月，北京网约车新政大限将至，滴滴宣布将逐步停止对北京三环内非京牌网约车派单。 In March of this year , the Beijing New Deal on Cars was approaching. Didi announced that it would gradually stop ordering cars from non-Beijing brands on the Third Ring Road in Beijing.
Master Sun, a Didi Express driver from the northeast, has not yet been cleaned up because he is a Beijing brand. 2015 年在朋友的推荐下做了滴滴快车司机。 Master Sun has been in Beijing for more than two decades. In 2015 , he became a Didi Express driver on the recommendation of a friend. 2000-3000 元”，回忆起原先的日子，他满是怀念。 At that time, Didi was promoting the special car and express train business. "At that time, the subsidy was high, and I could run 2000-3000 yuan a day." He remembered the original days, and he was full of nostalgia. I can earn 10,000 or 20,000 a month, and there are more and more friends who are drivers around.
“现在补贴太低了，就是鸡肋，每天就跑个500-600 元，去除成本后也就赚 200 多元。”孙师傅抱怨道，“现在政策不稳定，我只是北京车牌，不是北京户籍，能干多久还不知道。如果能找到好工作，我就不干了。” But everything changed after the New Deal on Internet Cars. "Now the subsidy is too low, which is a chicken rib. I run 500-600 yuan a day , and I make more than 200 yuan after removing the cost ." Master Sun complained, "Now the policy It ’s unstable. I ’m just a Beijing license plate, not a Beijing hukou. I do n’t know how long I can do it. If I can find a good job, I wo n’t do it. ”
“滴滴村”。 In Beijing's Houchang Village, it was once called "Didi Village" because a large number of foreign people gathered to open a car for a ride . After the implementation of the Beijing New Car Dealership, a large number of vehicles with foreign license plates in the village were idle. The original drivers also sought transformation, and some returned directly to their hometowns.
In addition to the driver, life on the platform is also difficult.
Under the requirements of the new policies in various places, the online ride-hailing platform must apply for a license to provide local services. 300 多个城市获得行政许可，需要先注册分公司，并凭营业执照、法人身份证、线上能力认定函和公章等原件挨个递送。 A Didi insider has calculated an account. If Didi wants to obtain administrative permits in more than 300 cities across the country , it needs to register branches first and present the originals such as business license, corporate identity card, online capacity certification letter and official seal. Delivery one by one. 300 多个城市申请完至少需要五六年时间，这还不算一些县级单位也出台了当地的网约车细则。 If a city takes one week, it will take at least five or six years for more than 300 cities in the country to complete the application, not to mention that some county-level units have also issued local rules for online car rental.
Under the pressure of corporate burdens and profits, the reduction of subsidies has become inevitable, and this has led to the emergence of difficult and expensive taxi rides.
Since the Spring Festival last year, the online taxi platform has been repeatedly questioned by the public for making taxis difficult, expensive, and even increasing fares. Under the intervention of government departments, Didi adopted measures to cancel price adjustments or cap dynamic price adjustments.
However, users still find that the price of online taxis is still inadvertently rising, even more expensive than taxis. To the user, it seems that everything is back to the origin.
? Where should the online car rental company go ?
; 另一方面也在探索新的业务，以减轻新政对公司运营的影响。 Under the new policy , on the one hand, ride-hailing companies are complying with the requirements of the new policy on the compliance of platforms, vehicles and drivers ; on the other hand, they are exploring new businesses to reduce the impact of the new policy on company operations.
29 个城市获牌照 14 个城市三证齐全首汽方面称，截止目前，首汽约车已在北京、上海、深圳、广州等 29 个城市已经取得了当地的网约车线下经营资质 ; 参考驾驶员近万名，已有数万名左右司机领取了《网络预约出租汽车驾驶员证》 ; 已有数千辆车提报审核并领取了《网络预约出租汽车运输证》。 Shouqi Booked Cars: 29 cities have obtained licenses and 14 cities have three certificates. Shouqi Auto said that as of now, Shouqi Book Cars have obtained local online car service lines in 29 cities including Beijing, Shanghai, Shenzhen, and Guangzhou. Qualifications ; with reference to nearly 10,000 drivers, about tens of thousands of drivers have received the "Internet Reservation Taxi Driver Certificate" ; thousands of vehicles have been submitted for review and have received the "Internet Reservation Taxi Transport Certificate" . 14 个城市三证齐全。 Shouqi has already completed three certificates in 14 cities including Beijing, Hangzhou, Ningbo, Chongqing, Wuxi, Nanjing, Wenzhou, Fuzhou, Qingdao, Dalian, Guangzhou, Suzhou, Kunshan, and Changzhou .
33 个城市获牌试点接入出租车 Divine Car: 33 cities have been licensed to pilot taxis
1 月 26 日在福建获得全国首张《网络预约出租汽车经营许可证》。 On January 26 this year , the country's first "Internet Reservation Taxi Operating License" was obtained in Fujian. 7 月 27 日，神州专车已在北京、上海、广州、深圳等 33 座城市获得经营许可。 As of July 27 , Shenzhou special cars have obtained operating permits in 33 cities including Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, and Shenzhen . Since the beginning of this year, China Special Cars has opened services in Lijiang, Jiuzhaigou, Jiujiang and other cities to expand its business scope.
In addition, Divine Cars is also opening up new businesses, such as strengthening cooperation with traditional taxi companies. 1 月，神州专车在绍兴试点接入出租车。 In January this year , a special car from Shenzhou piloted a taxi in Shaoxing. 187 家传统出租车企业、汽车租赁企度合作，把更多出租车企业的运营车辆和驾驶员接入神州专车。 On the basis of the pilot, the company is cooperating with 187 traditional taxi companies and car rental companies across the country to connect more taxi companies' operating vehicles and drivers to Divine Special Vehicles.
20 多个城市获牌开启国际化战略 Didi: More than 20 cities have been licensed to start their internationalization strategy
7 月，滴滴已经在北京、天津、成都、沈阳、宁波、苏州、南京等 20 多个城市拿下网约车牌照，不过这个数字距离滴滴所公布的目前已开通服务的 400 个城市只有 1/20 。 According to media statistics, as of July this year , Didi has already obtained online car licenses in more than 20 cities , including Beijing, Tianjin, Chengdu, Shenyang, Ningbo, Suzhou, and Nanjing , but this number is currently open from Didi's announcement. The 400 cities served are only 1/20 . Didi said that it is currently actively applying for licenses in various places.
While the special car and express business is affected, Didi is also seeking to diversify its business. Didi successively launched relatively high-end services such as premium cars, luxury cars, and car rental. At the same time, Didi also launched internationalization and technology strategies. It has successively invested in a number of overseas taxi companies and increased its presence in areas such as driverless driving and intelligent transportation R & D.
8 个城市获牌正战略调整 Easy to get: 8 cities receive strategic adjustments
8 个城市获得网约车牌照。 As of now, EDA has obtained online car licenses in 8 cities: Beijing, Chengdu, Dalian, Jinhua, Fuzhou, Huangshan, Wuxi, and Shenyang .
In addition, Easy to just change the controlling shareholder is in the strategic adjustment stage. CEO 彭刚也已经申请离职，考虑到易到业务恢复和过渡期平稳， CEO 离职一事延后至 9 月初。 Earlier, the four executives of the original LeTV system announced their collective resignation. Today, Yida confirmed that CEO Peng Gang has also applied for resignation. Considering that the business resumed and the transition period was stable, the CEO resignation was postponed to early September . CEO 人选。 It is reported that the new controlling shareholder Tao Yun Capital is looking for suitable CEO candidates.